Citi questions

Discipline: Nursing

Type of Paper: Question-Answer

Academic Level: Undergrad. (yrs 3-4)

Paper Format: APA

Pages: 1 Words: 275


Which of the following are the three principles discussed in the Belmont Report?
Respect for Persons, Beneficence, Justice

Which of the following is an example of how the Principle of Beneficence can be applied to a study employing human subjects?
Determining that the study has a maximization of benefits and a minimization of risks

All of the following are true regarding the Belmont Report, EXCEPT: The Belmont Report defines and delineates the differences between "Practice" and "Research"
The Belmont Report indicates that it is necessary to rigorously avoid conflicts of interest

A student working on his dissertation plans on interviewing 15 principals in neighboring high schools. The student plans to collect data about the personal experiences the principals have had with disruptive students, This study would be categorized as which type of review?
Full Board Review

Which of the following studies need IRB approval?
Studies collecting data about living individuals.

Which of the following elements must be included in an informed consent?
All foreseeable risks and discomforts

What is the Institutional Review Board (IRB) charged with? (There may be more than one correct answer. 
- Protecting the rights and welfare of human subjects. - Assuring that all applicable institutional policies and federal regulations related to research with human subjects are followed. - Reviewing subject recruitment materials and strategies.

The Belmont principle of beneficence requires that.
Potential benefits justify the risks of harm

Which of the following studies is linked most directly to the establishment of the National Research Act in 1974 and ultimately to the Belmont Report and Federal regulations for human subject protection
The Public Health Service Tuskegee Study of Untreated Syphilis in the Negro Male

Which of the following is an example of how the principle of beneficence is applied to a study involving human subjects?
Ensuring that risks are reasonable in relationship to anticipated benefits

The researcher’s failure to protect research subjects from deductive disclosure is the primary ethical violation in which of the following studies?
Harvard "Tastes, Ties, and Time (T3)" study (2006-2009)” study

according to the Belmont Report, the moral requirement that there be fair outcomes in the selection of research subjects, expresses the principle of

According to the federal regulations, which of the following studies meets the definition of research with human subjects?
An experiment is proposed on the relationship between gender-related stereotypes in math and the subsequent performance by males and females on math tests

A medical record is an example of
private information

Census data is an example of
Public information

according to the federal regulations, which of the following studies meets the definition of research with human subjects?
a study of twenty 4th grade classrooms in which researchers ask the schools to systematically vary the time of day reading is taught, and collect weekly assessments of reading comprehension for each child over a three-month period.

according to the federal regulations, which of the following studies meets the definition of research with human subjects?
A cognitive psychologist enrolls undergraduate students for a computer-based study about the effect of mood on problem solving behaviors

According to the federal regulations, human subjects are living human beings about whom an investigator obtains data through interaction or intervention with the individual or:
Identifiable private information
In addition to pregnant women, fetuses, and neonates, another subpart of the HHS regulations provides additional protections for which of the

following vulnerable populations?

Continuing review of an approved and ongoing protocol
must occur within 12 months of the approval date

which of the following statements about the relationship between an institution and the institution's IRB(s) is correct?
Officials of the institution may overrule an IRB approval

According to the federal regulations, research is eligible for exemption, if
The research falls into one of six categories of research activity described in the regulations.

According to federal regulations, the expedited review process may be used when the study procedures pose
No more than minimal risk and the research activities fall within regulatory categories identified as eligible

The primary purpose of a Certificate of Confidentiality is to
Protect identifiable research info from compelled disclosure

A researcher wants to do a web-based survey of college students to collect information about their sexual behavior and drug use. Direct identifiers will not be collected; however, IP addresses may be present in the data set. Risk of harm should be evaluated by:
Both the magnitude (or severity) and the probability (or likelihood) of harm.

A researcher wishes to study generational differences in coping mechanisms among adults who experienced abuse as children. Adequate measures will be instituted to obtain informed consent and ensure that there is no breach of confidentiality. The most likely additional risk is that some subjects may:
Experience emotional or psychological distress

What statement about risks in social and behavioral sciences research is most accurate:
Risks are specific to time, situation, and culture

according to Subpart D, research with children may be eligible for exemption when
The research involves the use of educational tests

a researcher asks an IRB to waive the requirement for parental permission for a study conducted in schools because the nature of the. Assuming that the basic research design could be approved by the IRB and the school, which of the following requirements must be met before an IRB could waive parental permission
The research must pose no more than minimal risk.

A researcher wants to observe preschoolers at a local public playground to evaluate levels of cooperation. The researcher will not interact with the children. This research would be eligible for which type of IRB review
This research would not require IRB review because it would be eligible for exemption since the researcher is not interacting with the children and the playground is a public setting.

The Belmont Report’s principle of respect for persons incorporates at least two ethical convictions: first, that individuals should be treated as autonomous agents, and second, that:
Persons with diminished autonomy are entitled to protection. 

The specific Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) Regulations that apply to research with children are known as:
subpart D: Additional Protections for Children Involved as Subjects in Research

Which of thefollowing statements most accurately describes the requirement for the documentation of minors' assent to participate in research?
Federal regulations do not require the documentation of minors' assent

According to the PHS, which of the following would be considered a significant financial interest?
An equity interest valued at $6000 owned by the investigator’s spouse in a company that produces products related to the investigator’s institutional responsibilities

Which of following most accurately describes when investigators pursuing PHS funding are required to disclose their significant financial interests to their institution?
No later than the time of applying for funding.

Which of the following is true regarding the PHS's approach to the disclosure of significant financial interests?
Any equity in a non-publicly traded company must be disclosed.

According to the PHS regulations, investigators are required to disclose travel sponsored or reimbursed by:
A publicly traded company.

According to the PHS, the term “significant financial interest” includes royalty income paid to an investigator:
Except if that income is from the investigator’s current employing institution

Which of the following financial conflict of interest information must be made available by institutions on a public website or within five business days upon request?
The FCOIs of senior/key personnel on PHS-funded projects

Institutions are required by the PHS to do which of the following
Evaluate whether an SFI is related to an investigator’s research and constitutes an FCOI.

Which of the following statements most accurately describes a mitigation report?
A report to PHS of efforts that will be taken by the institution to deal with any bias that was found in research conducted while there was an unreported FCOI.

The PHS requires institutions to:
Disclose their investigators’ new FCOIs to the PHS awarding component within sixty days of discovering them.

Which of the following statements is true regarding the reporting of outside interests and the management of conflicts?
Investigators must disclose their SFIs related to their institutional responsibilities and not just those related to a particular project.

According to U.S. Federal Research Misconduct Policy, which of the following is considered to be research misconduct?

The typical first main phase in response to a research misconduct allegation is called:
The inquiry

Which type of inappropriate practice most likely occurred if a researcher takes credit for someone else’s idea and does not acknowledge the original source?

Which of the following is the most effective strategy for preventing research misconduct?
Good mentoring

Which type of research misconduct most likely occurred if someone intentionally removes data points from the data set in order to generate a deceptive conclusion?

According to the U.S. Federal Research Misconduct Policy, falsification involves:
Manipulating research materials, equipment, or processes, or changing or omitting data

Which of the following is true regarding research misconduct?
Federal funding agencies typically rely on an institution to make the initial response to an allegation of research misconduct.

Which of the following is most likely to be considered plagiarism?
Using materials from a source without proper citation.

if a researcher creates the idea for a project and is not listed in the preferred author order position on resulting publications, is this considered to be
research misconduct under federal policy?
No; instead it is a type of authorship dispute.

Which of the following is true regarding data sharing and stewardship?
Researchers who receive federal funding may have to adhere to a data sharing requirement.

Which of the following is true regarding data analysis?
Data analysis methods should be specified in advance before a study begins.

Which of following is most likely to own the data resulting from a research project?
The institution where a federally-funded project takes place.

In the research context, the term validity most commonly refers to:
Whether operationalized terms actually measure what they purport to measure.

which of the following is true regarding reporting research results?
Clear specification of the methods and procedures used is essential.

Which of the following most accurately describes the practice of ghost authorship?
It is a situation where the individual who wrote the manuscript is not listed as an author

Which of the following is true regarding an acknowledgments section?
The contributions of students and technicians are often listed in the acknowledgments section if they do not meet all of the criteria for authorship.

Which of the following is true regarding authors who seek to publish the same content in multiple papers?
Using the same content in multiple papers is deceptive if it is not properly disclosed.

Which of the following statements is true regarding the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (ICMJE) guidelines?
Individuals who do not meet the criteria for authorship but who have made a noteworthy contribution are normally listed in the acknowledgments section.

Which of the following statements is true regarding authorship practices?
Different disciplines have different practices about who should be included as an author.